Archives de catégorie : Billets





MARK16 is a SNSF PRIMA project on five years (2018-2023) that develops a new research model in digitized biblical sciences, based on a test case found in the New Testament: the last chapter of the Gospel according to Mark. The goal of the project is to produce new research results on a famous  test-case, Mk16, and to create a virtual research environment, that will be the outputs website for textual criticism and exegesis of Mark 16.  SNF website:


MARK16 is the first virtual research environment (VRE) that focuses on a chapter of the Bible ( Through the presentation and study of unedited or significant material, its purpose is to reintroduce the issues raised regarding the different endings of the Gospel of Mark. The last chapter of the Gospel of Mark presents a well-known issue in the field of New Testament textual criticism: certain manuscripts do not contain stories depicting the resurrected Jesus at the end of the gospel. To highlight new research findings, this project is building a VRE that provides 46 manuscripts in nine ancient languages, as well as useful resources and research hypotheses on a multimedia publishing platform.The VRE allows scholars to explore the complexity of the textual tradition of Markan manuscripts and to analyse the historical tensions between diverse, early Christian groups during the first and second century CE, specifically in Egypt. Through its many publications, the project has already demonstrated that a plural reading of the ending of Mark has prevailed through the centuries.

Moreover, MARK16 currently studies and highlights the shorter ending of Mark, or conclusio brevior, that can be found in at least six languages and 150 manuscripts. Its most ancient form is in the Lating Codex Bobbiensis (380-420 CE): for the first time, three folios of this manuscript are visible online on the MARK16 VRE.The publication of the 2020 conference proceedings has clearly demonstrated the potential of VREs for researching ancient manuscripts. The second conference, planned for 2022, will explore the multilingual traditions of Mark’s endings. MARK16 is supervised by an international advisory board including Leif Isaksen (UK), Jennifer Knust (USA), Valérie Nicolet (FR), Laurent Romary (FR), Joseph Verheyden (BE), and Peter Williams (UK). It also has several partnerships, notably with the INTF (Münster), the CNRS (Huma-Num, Nakala), OPERAS (Go Triple), and the Pelagios network.

Project team

Claire Clivaz – PI, Head of DH+ (SIB)

Mina Monier, Post-doc, DH+ (SIB)

Elisa Nury, Research Scientist, DH+ (SIB)

Jonathan Barda, Software developer, Core-IT (SIB)

Silvano Aldà, Software developer, Core-IT (SIB)

… and numerous collaboration and partnerships! We thank also warmly our former collaborators employed in the project: Sara Schulthess, Research Scientist, and Jean-Bernard Dugied and Martial Sankar (software developers).

Claire Clivaz

Claire Clivaz is Head of Digital Humanities+ at SIB, Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne (CH). She is leading projects in DH and New Testament. This blog presents the activities of the group DH+.

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SNSF database:; lectures and conferences: see the News page

Publications – Online communication – Media

1) Publications:

Clivaz, Claire, “Marc 15,34 dans le codex de Bèze et le codex Bobbiensis”, dans Jean-Claude Haelewyck et Laurent Pinchard (éd.), Traditions et traductions des textes bibliques. Études en l’hommage de Christian Bernard Amphoux à l’occasion de son 80e anniversaire, Bruxelles: Safran, forthcoming, (in open access Green Road with six months of embargo)

Clivaz, Claire, “New Testament Textual Criticism and Digital Humanities”, in Sidnie White Crawford and Tommy Wasserman (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Textual Criticism of the Bible. Oxford & New York: OUP (forthcoming).

Monier, Mina and Nury, Elisa, “The SNSF MARK16 Project. The first virtual research environment focused on a biblical chapter”, Poster presented at the 2022 DARIAH-CH study day (Mendrisio, 20.10.22),

Monier, Mina. 2022. “Mark’s Endings in Context: Paratexts and Codicological Remarks” Religions 13, no. 6: 548.

Clivaz, Claire, “Editer le Nouveau Testament à l’heure du numérique”, Bulletin de l’Académie des Sciences humaines et sociales 3 (2021), p. 37-40,  open access.

Monier, Mina, “Mark’s Ending in the Digital Age: Paratextual Evidence, New Findings and Transcription Challenges”, Postscripts: The Journal of Sacred Texts, Cultural Histories, and Contemporary Contexts 12 (2021/1), p. 75-98; open access (green road):;

Clivaz, Claire and Allen, Garrick V. (eds.), Ancient Manuscripts and Virtual Research Environments, Classics@ 18 (2021),

Clivaz, Claire. “Looking at Scribal Practices in the Endings of Mark 16”, Henoch 42 (2020/2), special issue edited by P. Pouchelle and J.-S. Rey, p. 373-387,

Clivaz, Claire. “Mk 16 im Codex Bobbiensis. Neue Materialien zur conclusio brevior des Markusevangeliums.” Zeitschrift für Neues Testament 47/24 (2021), p. 59-85,

Clivaz, Claire, Mina Monier and Jonathan Barda, “MARK16 as Virtual Research Environment. Challenges and Opportunities in New Testament Studies”. In “Ancient Manuscripts and Virtual Research Environments,” ed. Claire Clivaz and Garrick V. Allen, special issue, Classics@ 18. [N.p.]

Clivaz, Claire, and Garrick V. Allen. 2021. “Introduction.” In “Ancient Manuscripts and Virtual Research Environments,” ed. Claire Clivaz and Garrick V. Allen, special issue, Classics@ 18. [N.p.]

Claire Clivaz & Garrick Allen, “Conference report: Ancient Manuscripts and Virtual Research Environments. Lausanne 10-11 September 2020”, COMSt Bulletin 6/2, 2020, p. 205-208; 10.25592/uhhfdm.8477,

Clivaz, Claire, “Le Nouveau Testament numérique, un Novum Instrumentum omne ?”, Cahiers bibliques. Foi et Vie 123 (2020/5), p. 4-11;

Clivaz, Claire. “New Testament and Digital Humanities”, Verkündigung und Forschung 65 (2020/2), p. 98-104;

Clivaz, Claire, Mina Monier and Jonathan Barda, MARK16 (virtual research environment), DH+, SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne (CH), ISSN 2673-9836,

Clivaz, Claire. “Lire la Bible à l’ère du numérique: entre contraintes et nouveaux horizons.” Lumen Vitae LXXV (2020/2), p. 167-177;

Claire Clivaz. “Der Markusschluss : Narratologie und Traditiongeschichte, written by Andreas Seifert”, Novum Testamentum 62/1 (2019), p. 107-8;

Clivaz, Claire. “Returning to Mark 16,8: What’s New?” Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 96/4 (2019), p. 645-659;

Monier, Mina, “GA 304, Theophylact’s Commentary and the Ending of Mark.” Filología Neotestamentaria 52 (2019), p. 94-106;

Clivaz, Claire, “The Impact of Digital Research: Thinking about the MARK16 Project.” Open Theology 5/1 (2019): 1-12;

2) Online communication:

Corina Combert-Galland, “Le Dieu du jeune homme nu. Lectures de l’Evangile de Marc. Relecture d’un parcours sémiotique”, eTalk, 17 January 2021.

Jonathan Barda (Core-IT, SIB) and Claire Clivaz (DH+, SIB): “The MARK16 Manuscript Room API”, IIIF Fall workshop December 2020, IIIF YouTube channel:

Kara J. Lyons-Pardue, “eTalk on Gospel Women and the Long Ending of Mark”, 10 Septembre 2020

Claire Clivaz, “Parcourir quelques manuscrits de Marc 16, dont le codex latin k”, eTalk, 27 janvier 2020

Mina Monier, “Mark 16 in the Arabic Diatessaron”, eTalk, 6 janvier 2020

Claire Clivaz, “Looking at some Mark 16 manuscripts, including Latin codex k”, eTalk, 20 novembre 2019

Mina Monier, “GA 304 and the Ending of the Gospel according to Mark”, 23 mai 2019

Claire Clivaz, “Marc 16 et les humanités numériques”, eTalk, 20 décembre 2018

Claire Clivaz, “MARK16 and Digital Humanities”, eTalk, 30 octobre 2018

3) Media

Luzerner Zeitung, “Ist Gott in der grossen Datenwolke zu finden? – Digital-Theologin Claire Clivaz”, 24 Décembre 2019

RTS, La 1ère, CQFD, “Rencontre avec Claire Clivaz une specialiste de la culture digitale et du Nouveau Testament”, 29 novembre 2019

Magazine FNS Horizon, “The digital theologian”, juin 2019

Journal Réformés, “L’ère digitale rend toute son oralité à la Bible”, août 2018



Claire Clivaz

Claire Clivaz is Head of Digital Humanities+ at SIB, Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne (CH). She is leading projects in DH and New Testament. This blog presents the activities of the group DH+.

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VREs and Ancient Manuscripts Conference 2020

We thank warmly all our speakers and posters presenters for the great talks they have given at our online conference! The proceedings are now in preparation for a special Classics@ issue.

See you at our next MARK16 online conference on the 2 and 3 June 2022, organized by Claire Clivaz & Mina Monier (DH+, SIB) and Dan Batovici (University of Leuven)


ONLINE CONFERENCE – 10-11 Septembre 2020

Org. Claire Clivaz (DH+, SIB) & Garrick Allen (Dublin University), with Mina Monier & Sara Schulthess (DH+, SIB)






This conference is focused on an important challenge in digital humanities: what changes when research on ancient manuscripts occurs in a Virtual Research Environment (VRE), especially in Early Jewish and Christian Literature, New Testament, and Classical Studies? Because they offer access to diverse information regardless of geographical location, VREs continue to define the research landscape of the humanities in more complex ways. They serve as the new “covers” of scientific objects, replacing the paper covers of printed books as signs of knowledge territories. As some have suggested, VREs are likely to become the default location for critical research and other cultural activities in the very near future.

Be sure to note that these times are local time in Switzerland, so one hour behind in the UK/Ireland.

The inscriptions are now closed; if you want to check during the conference if there is an empty place to attend to a session, please contact 

Thursday 10 September, 9h-18h30 (CET time)

9h: Welcome: Claire Clivaz (DH+, SIB) & Garrick Allen (Dublin City University)

Session 1) Reconsidering digital editing of Ancient corpora

10h25-10h45: Break

12h00-12h30: Discussion

12h30-13h30: Lunch break

Session 2) Data storage, curation and evaluation

14h40-15h: Break

16h35-17h: Discussion


Friday 11 September, 9h-17h15 (CET time)

Session 4) Crossing boundaries

10h10-10h30 : Break

11h30-12h: Discussion

12h-13h30: Lunch break

Session 5) New Testament DH projects

14h40-15h10: Discussion

15h10-15h30: Break

Session 6) Poster session

15h30-17h: Poster session with 3 min of short presentation per poster in alphabetical order (15h30-16h15), followed by breakout rooms (16h15-17h)

    1. Anna Foka, Kyriaki Konstantinidou, Elton Barker (Uppsala University), “A digital periegesis- annotating, mapping and linking Pausanias’s Description of Greece
    2. Francesca Galli and Elena Nieddu (Universita della Svizzera italiana & Roma 3), “In Codice Ratio: using VREs in the study of the Medieval Vatican Registers
    3. Moshe Lavee (University of Haifa), “Digital Research Library for Multi-hierarchical Interrelated Texts From Tikkoun SofrimText Production to Text Modeling
    4. Marie-Agnès Lucas-Avenel and Marie Bisson (University of Caen), “Why do the digital critical edition of a Latin source? The example of the De Rebus Gestis Rogerii comitis by Gaufredus Malaterra
    5. Riccardo Macchioro (Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen), “Patristic Sermons in the Middle Ages (PASSIM Radboud University) Towards a Virtual Research Environment for the Study of Patristic Homiliaries
    6. Elisa Nury (University of Geneva) and Elena Spadini (University of Lausanne), “Manuscripts and digital tools the long history of machine-assisted collatio
    7. Elpida Perdiki and Maria Konstantinidou (Democritus University of Thrace), “Handling Big Manuscript Data
    8. Sara Schulthess (SIB, Lausanne), “The VRE of the research project HumaReC, some lessons learned
    9. Andrew Smith (Shepherds Theological Seminary), “Mining Manuscript Data in the New Testament Virtual Manuscript Room
    10. Simone Zenzaro (University of Lausanne) “Towards better VREs: key concepts and basic challenges” 

17h-17h15: Farewell

Claire Clivaz

Claire Clivaz is Head of Digital Humanities+ at SIB, Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne (CH). She is leading projects in DH and New Testament. This blog presents the activities of the group DH+.

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