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MARK16 is a SNSF PRIMA project on five years (2018-2023) that develops a new research model in digitized biblical sciences, based on a test case found in the New Testament: the last chapter of the Gospel according to Mark. The goal of the project is to produce new research results on a famous  test-case, Mk16, and to create a virtual research environment, that will be the outputs website for textual criticism and exegesis of Mark 16, comparing researchers’ hypotheses.  SNF website:


MARK16  is the first virtual research environment (VRE) focused on a biblical chapter and inaugurates a new research model for the digitized Humanities. The chosen topic is a famous enigma in New Testament studies: certain manuscripts evidences do not have an apparition of the resurrected Jesus at the end of the Gospel according to Mark, and at least six different endings of Mark can be found in the manuscripts. Presenting the research matter, this VRE will become the outputs place for textual criticism and exegesis of Mark 16, and will allow to visualize the “story of the winners and the loosers”, according to the French historian François Hartog’s expression. It will provide the basis to explore the PI hypothesis: the Gospel according to Mark had a previous ending, lost or destroyed, before the endings transmitted from the 4th century by the manuscripts evidences; the complexity of the textual variants illustrates the Ancient topos of people emotions in front of dead alive apparitions, and shows historically the tensions existing between Christian trends at the 1st century C.E. The outputs of the research team is available here ; news about the project here.

MARK16 VRE  is divided in four parts. The first one, the “Manuscript Room”, will welcome a selection of Greek and other languages manuscripts of particular importance or interest for Mark 16, , in collaboration with the NTVMR (Münster). The second part, “Interpretations”, gives voice to the scholars about their interpretations of Mark 16, through an innovative multimodal publishing format, the eTalk. The third part, “Material” provides references to the research material, including the open access material itself when available, from printed material to audio-visual and multimodal publications. The last part “Data Visualisation” will propose a geographical-time based representation of the manuscripts and research data, in collaboration with Pelagios. Thanks to our collaboration with Huma-Num, the open public depository Nakala allows us to give shape to our data with extended metadata information. Dataset are regularly published on the SNSF database p3.

A scientific board accompanies the project: Leif Isaksen (Exeter University, UK), Jennifer Knust (Duke University, USA), Valérie Nicolet (IPT, Paris), Laurent Romary (INRIA, Paris), Joseph Verheyden (Leuven Catholic University, BE) et Peter Williams (Tyndale House, UK). This project hopes to foster the digital turn of New Testament studies; it supports an academic reading of the Bible at a time in which the European research plays a crucial role in maintaining the social peace between religious communities.

Project team

Claire Clivaz – PI, Head of DH+

Mina Monier, Post-doc

Sarah Schluthess, DH Scientist

Jonathan Barda, Software developer, Core-IT (SIB)

Claire Clivaz

Claire Clivaz is Head of Digital Humanities+ at SIB, Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne (CH). She is leading projects in DH and New Testament. This blog presents the activities of the group DH+.

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VREs and Ancient Manuscripts Conference 2020

We thank warmly all our speakers and posters presenters for the great talks they have given at our online conference! The proceedings are now in preparation for a special Classics@ issue.

See you at our next MARK16 online conference on the 2 and 3 June 2022, organized by Claire Clivaz & Mina Monier (DH+, SIB) and Dan Batovici (University of Leuven)


ONLINE CONFERENCE – 10-11 Septembre 2020

Org. Claire Clivaz (DH+, SIB) & Garrick Allen (Dublin University), with Mina Monier & Sara Schulthess (DH+, SIB)






This conference is focused on an important challenge in digital humanities: what changes when research on ancient manuscripts occurs in a Virtual Research Environment (VRE), especially in Early Jewish and Christian Literature, New Testament, and Classical Studies? Because they offer access to diverse information regardless of geographical location, VREs continue to define the research landscape of the humanities in more complex ways. They serve as the new “covers” of scientific objects, replacing the paper covers of printed books as signs of knowledge territories. As some have suggested, VREs are likely to become the default location for critical research and other cultural activities in the very near future.

Be sure to note that these times are local time in Switzerland, so one hour behind in the UK/Ireland.

The inscriptions are now closed; if you want to check during the conference if there is an empty place to attend to a session, please contact 

Thursday 10 September, 9h-18h30 (CET time)

9h: Welcome: Claire Clivaz (DH+, SIB) & Garrick Allen (Dublin City University)

Session 1) Reconsidering digital editing of Ancient corpora

10h25-10h45: Break

12h00-12h30: Discussion

12h30-13h30: Lunch break

Session 2) Data storage, curation and evaluation

14h40-15h: Break

16h35-17h: Discussion


Friday 11 September, 9h-17h15 (CET time)

Session 4) Crossing boundaries

10h10-10h30 : Break

11h30-12h: Discussion

12h-13h30: Lunch break

Session 5) New Testament DH projects

14h40-15h10: Discussion

15h10-15h30: Break

Session 6) Poster session

15h30-17h: Poster session with 3 min of short presentation per poster in alphabetical order (15h30-16h15), followed by breakout rooms (16h15-17h)

    1. Anna Foka, Kyriaki Konstantinidou, Elton Barker (Uppsala University), “A digital periegesis- annotating, mapping and linking Pausanias’s Description of Greece
    2. Francesca Galli and Elena Nieddu (Universita della Svizzera italiana & Roma 3), “In Codice Ratio: using VREs in the study of the Medieval Vatican Registers
    3. Moshe Lavee (University of Haifa), “Digital Research Library for Multi-hierarchical Interrelated Texts From Tikkoun SofrimText Production to Text Modeling
    4. Marie-Agnès Lucas-Avenel and Marie Bisson (University of Caen), “Why do the digital critical edition of a Latin source? The example of the De Rebus Gestis Rogerii comitis by Gaufredus Malaterra
    5. Riccardo Macchioro (Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen), “Patristic Sermons in the Middle Ages (PASSIM Radboud University) Towards a Virtual Research Environment for the Study of Patristic Homiliaries
    6. Elisa Nury (University of Geneva) and Elena Spadini (University of Lausanne), “Manuscripts and digital tools the long history of machine-assisted collatio
    7. Elpida Perdiki and Maria Konstantinidou (Democritus University of Thrace), “Handling Big Manuscript Data
    8. Sara Schulthess (SIB, Lausanne), “The VRE of the research project HumaReC, some lessons learned
    9. Andrew Smith (Shepherds Theological Seminary), “Mining Manuscript Data in the New Testament Virtual Manuscript Room
    10. Simone Zenzaro (University of Lausanne) “Towards better VREs: key concepts and basic challenges” 

17h-17h15: Farewell

Claire Clivaz

Claire Clivaz is Head of Digital Humanities+ at SIB, Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne (CH). She is leading projects in DH and New Testament. This blog presents the activities of the group DH+.

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